Academy of Ancient Languages

Online Resources for Learning
Ancient Languages

Learn to Read New Testament Greek
Course text by David Alan Black (Broadman & Holman, 1994)

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Greek Fonts

Greek fonts come in two varieties: (1) with overstrike (zero-width) characters and (2) with pre-assembled characters. With fonts of the first type, if you want to enter a lower-case alpha with a smooth-breathing mark and an acute accent, you enter 3 separate characters: first the alpha, then the diacritics which are placed over the alpha instead of after it. With fonts of the second type, the alpha with smooth-breathing and acute accent is a pre-assembled character entered by using the (Windows) Alt + Numeric Keypad value of that character.

The advantage of the first type of font is that there are fewer keystroke assignments and almost all text can be entered with the regular keyboard without using the cumbersome Alt + Numeric Keypad method. The disadvantage is that sometimes the kerning is not precise. The advantage of the second type of font is that there is never a kerning issue and the finished product looks beautiful. The disadvantage is that you have to hunt in a character map for every letter that has one or more diacritics associated with it.

SIL Galatia

SIL Fonts page (includes many useful fonts):

Download and install the "SIL Greek Font System":

Download a Character Map for SIL Galatia Font: pdf / doc
NOTE: A character map for any font on a Windows system is found as follows:
Start > All Programs > Accessories > System Tools > Character Map

Fonts in Cyberspace (with links to other font archives)

Fonts for Biblical Studies

A shareware font ($20 registration fee) used in Silver Mountain Software products (see Software below).

SBL Fonts

Only Hebrew, public beta font is currently available, but check periodically for updates. A Greek font should surface here in the near future.

Greek New Testament Texts

Greek New Testament
: With English Introduction including Greek/English dictionary/flexible cover, by Kurt Aland. This is the most current edition, UBS, 4th ed. The dictionary in the back is very handy for quick reference. A new edition is available with with inclusion of papyri 99-116.

This edition has English headings. The text-critical apparatus is primarily restricted to variant readings that affect translation. The base text is the same as NA27 below.

NA27 8th
Novum Testamentum Graece. Nestle-Aland, 27th edition, 8th corrected printing, with inclusion of papyri 99-116.

This edition has numerous variant readings of all types in the text-critical apparatus. The base text is the same as GNT4 above.

See also "Internet Links" below for online Greek New Testaments.

Greek New Testament Lexica

A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd. ed., revised and edited by Frederick William Danker (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000).

This is now the standard lexicon for New Testament word meanings. It is a substantial improvement over the 2nd edition with the addition of descriptions of word meanings and usages.

Louw & Nida
Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains, 2nd ed., by Johannes P. Louw and Eugene A. Nida (United Bible Societies, 1988).

Greek Reference Grammars

F. Blass and A. Debrunner, A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, trans. Robert W. Funk (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961).

Ernest DeWitt Burton, Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in New Testament Greek (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1976)

Dana & Mantey
H. E. Dana and Julius R. Mantey, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament (New York: Macmillan, 1957)

C. F. D. Moule, An Idiom Book of New Testament Greek, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1959)

Moulton-Prolegomena; Moulton-Accidence;
Turner-Syntax; Turner-Style

James Hope Moulton, A Grammar of New Testament Greek (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark):
Volume 1: James Hope Moulton, Prolegomena, 3rd ed. (1908)
Volume 2: James Hope Moulton and Wilbert Francis Howard, Accidence and Word-Formation with an Appendix on Semitisms in the New Testament (1928)
Volume 3: Nigel Turner, Syntax (1963)
Volume 4: Nigel Turner, Style (1976)

A. T. Robertson, A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in Light of Historical Research (Nashville: Broadman, 1934)

Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996).

Maximilian Zerwick, Biblical Greek: Illustrated by Examples, trans. Joseph Smith (Rome: Scripta Pontificii Instituti Biblici, 1963)

For Classical Greek see:

Herbert Weir Smyth, Greek Grammar (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1956; 1984).

Vocabulary Building

Warren C. Trenchard, Complete Vocabulary Guide to the Greek New Testament, rev. ed. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1998).
This work gives frequency counts of N.T. words, but its most useful feature is the grouping of all cognate words together. I.e. if you want to look up a word-root and find its forms as noun, verb, adjective, etc. including forms with prefixed prepositions or other particles, they’re all there in one handy list.


James Barr, The Semantics of Biblical Language (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961; reprint, London: SCM Press Ltd, 1983). A rather advanced work, but worth every bit of time spent working through it. Silva, Biblical Words and Their Meaning (see below) quotes Moule's comment on Barr's book: "It is an investigation carried out on the highest level of scholarly exactness and in a temper of honest inquiry; and biblical theologians will ignore it at their peril." (pp. 19-20).

A couple of important items discussed by Barr are:

  • "root fallacy" - "giving excessive weight to the origin of word as against its actual semantic value" (pg. 103)
  • "Illegitimate Totality Transfer" - "The error that arises, when the 'meaning' of a word (understood as the total series of relations in which it is used in the literature) is read into a particular case as its sense and implication there..." (pg. 218)

Moises Silva, Biblical Words and Their Meaning: An Introduction to Lexical Semantics, revised and expanded edition (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994).

David Alan Black, Linguistics for Students of New Testament Greek: A Survey of Basic Concepts and Applications (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1988).

David Alan Black, It's Still Greek to Me: An Easy-to-Understand Guide to Intermediate Greek (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1998).

New Testament Textual Criticism

Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland, The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, 2nd ed., trans. Erroll F. Rhodes (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989).

Bruce M. Metzger, Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, 2nd ed. (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft and United Bible Societies, 1994).

Bruce M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration, 3rd ed. (New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).

Bruce M. Metzger, The Early Versions of the New Testament: Their Origin, Transmission and Limitations (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977).

Other Internet Links

Online Greek New Testaments

Greek New Testament (NA, 26th edition)

This site offers a complete parsing guide to every word of the Greek New Testament. For example, from the link above I chose the option "Select a chapter" and then chose John 1. A partial screen shot of that page is shown below:

Then I clicked on the second word of verse 1 (arche), which brought up the parsing information shown below:


Other Greek New Testaments:
The Greek New Testament Gateway

Check out the other links to resources at
The Greek New Testament Gateway:

  • Learning New Testament Greek
  • Fonts
  • Grammars
  • Language
  • Lexica
  • Discussion List
  • Computer Software
  • Bibliography
  • Septuagint