Academy of Ancient Languages

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Ancient Languages

Learn to Read New Testament Greek
Course text by David Alan Black (Broadman & Holman, 1994)

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Lesson 4
Nouns of the Second Declension

Review and Additional Reading

Now is a great time to review lessons 1-3, especially all of the vocabulary in section 26 (pp. 21-22) of Black. There might be a short quiz on this vocabulary at the next class :-)

If you purchased Black's book It's Still Greek to Me, now would be an excellent time to read Chapter 1: "There's No Place like Rome: The Parts of Speech and Their Function" and Chapter 2: "Group Therapy: The Sentence and Its Parts". If you have questions about the reading, bring them up at the next class.

You will find important additional information about the concept and categories of "case" in Chapter 3: "Just in Case: Overcoming Declension Apprehension". Don't worry about trying to understand the Greek examples. Just get the drift from the English explanations. The "Key Terms" at the end of each chapter of It's Still Greek to Me are great for review. You will find it very beneficial to review/quiz yourself on these lists of key terms at least once a week.

Terms to Note:

  • cases: nominative, genitive (NOT: genetive!), dative, accusative, vocative
  • case-number suffix
  • stem vowel
  • declension
  • stem
  • ablatival genitive
  • locative/instrumental dative, dative of personal advantage
  • complement
  • definite article
  • arthrous/anarthrous
  • coordinate conjunction
  • subordinate conjunction
  • concessive, temporal, causal, final, consecutive
  • postpositive

Special Note

Note carefully the last sentence on pg. 26 of Black:

Neuter plural nouns regularly take singular verbs

[but not always]

"Perhaps no syntactical peculiarity of Greek is more striking to us than the use of the singular verb with a neuter plural subject...The rule appears to have been most strictly followed in Attic...Homer and Koine are less consistent, while the plural is used exclusively in MGr [Modern Greek]. In the NT (as in the LXX and pap...) there is marked diversity, and often in individual instances the MSS [manuscripts] diverge...
(1) The plural is used especially with neuters designating persons...
(2) The singular, on the contrary, preponderates with words having non-personal meaning...
(3) and even more so with abstracts and pronouns..."

BDF, pg. 73.

Vocabulary Pronuncation

Click in a column to hear the words in that column.

A. Masculine Nouns of the Second Declension

B. Neuter Nouns of the Second Declension

C. Feminine Nouns of the Second Declension

D. Additional omega Verbs

E. Conjunctions

Translation Exercises

Download the exercises in pdf (print only) or doc (editable) format.

Notes to Translation Exercises

1. The sentence does NOT start: "He writes a servant" !

3. The sentence does NOT start: "They loose/destroy brothers" !

4. The sentence does NOT start: "They bring sons" !

6. The sentence does NOT start: "He sees a son" !

7. The sentence does NOT start: "He does not say a brother" !

8. The sentence does NOT start: "He brings a servant" !

12. The sentence does NOT start: "They loose/destroy sons" !

13. The sentence does NOT start with "And" !

15. Note 1: The sentence does NOT start: "He hears children" !

15. Note 2: The second word in the sentence is the plural subject of the
     singular verb, which is the first word in the sentence.

15. Note 3: The fourth and last words are a special use of the dative case.
     (see section 31, pg. 27).

17. Note the word order! Note the tense of the verbs!

18. The sentence does NOT start: "They save apostles" !

20. Note the tense of the last verb!

22. Note 1: Note the tense of the verb!

22. Note 2: The last word is a special use of the genitive case.

Pronunciation of Exercises

Click on an exercise to hear it.